Tag Archives: psychology

Confessions of a psychology graduate

As is not uncommon in Scotland, I went to university when I was just 17 years old. I always knew I wanted to go to uni, although I was only the second person in my whole family to make the leap into higher education. I have always loved learning and school and therefore it just seemed like the natural thing to do. However this meant that I had to make a pretty huge decision between the tender ages of 15 and 16: Which degree program I wanted to embark on for four years of my life. There was no question about it (after a brief period of flirting with the idea of journalism): I was going to study psychology.

At the time this was a very easy decision to make and it has only been fairly recently that I have begun to reflect on why I made this decision and did not even consider another subject – in particular, given my obvious passion and enthusiasm for biology etc, why did I not chose to study a “real” science?

The answer is, if someone could go back in time, find the 15-16 year old Loris (probably sitting in her computing class giggling hysterically at hilarious cartoon videos on Weebls-stuff – hey, these were the days before Youtube, kids!) and tell her that she should consider studying biology at university, I’m almost certain she would have laughed in your face.

It’s not that I didn’t like science – in fact, when we were choosing our standard grade subjects (Scottish equivalent of the English GCSEs or whatever they are these days) I was adamant that I wanted to pick up both chemistry and biology, which my guidance teacher advised against because it was “tricky to take two sciences” (he asked me to consider taking an arts subject instead, however if he had spoken to either my art or craft and design teacher and/or ever taken a look at any of the monstrosities I had produced in these classes I’m sure he would have retracted that statement). But I got my own way and studied both biology and chemistry. It’s sad to say that I adored both of these subjects until I was formally taught them in school.

My chemistry teacher looked like a mad scientist, but not in an eccentric and endearing way. He was short with the most unruly beard I have ever seen, was never without a ragged tank top covered by a lab coat and had a very obvious dislike of high school-age children. He mumbled when he spoke so you couldn’t hear a damn thing he said, and when he tried to emphasise his point by writing it on the blackboard at the front of the class, his writing was so manic and unintelligible that it just made things more confusing and you wouldn’t dare ask a question because it just seemed to frustrate him, making everything a bit more agitated. I enjoyed the demos we got to do in class, but I left every day with absolutely no idea of the science behind them and the relevance of any of them.

Biology was a little different; my teacher was a patient elderly woman who explained things quite well. I loved learning about plants and animals and cells and ecology, but when it came to assessment time I failed miserably every time. I felt like I understood the lessons and my homework was always fine, but when it came to class tests I was just not getting the grades. I was in my biology class at lunch times leading up to exams and worked my ass off to eventually got a top grade in the exam, but it was a real struggle. I realise now that perhaps I found this so difficult because the questions we were asked were so aloof and out of context. To revise we were all told to do lots of past papers which I did, and they helped – but only because you got to know the sorts of questions that would come up. They did nothing to enhance my actual understanding of biology or science itself, I was just repeating stuff I had memorised.

I don’t recall if I made this analysis at the time or not, but I now realise that to me, psychology was “like science but easier”. But I absolutely adored my degree. I barely missed any of my lectures and classes over four years and found the university system of assignment much easier to handle than the school arrangement I was so used to but had grown to hate. Suddenly I could write essays and give an opinion and criticise without being “right” or “wrong”. I was fascinated (and often horrified) by the history of psychological research, and my degree subject became more than my studies, it became part of my identity, and on my graduation day I was proud to hold a BSc in psychology.

It was only after I graduated that I began to reflect on my chosen degree. People began asking what I wanted to do now. Most assumed I was going to be a psychologist (which I had decided against strongly within two weeks of my first semester), then seemed genuinely confused and almost sympathetic when I told them this was certainly not going to be the case (presumably they thought I had just wasted four years of my life). I grew tired of the number of times I heard something along the lines of “Oh you’ve got a psychology degree? Well you’ve got your work cut out with this one!” “Psychology? Oooh we better watch ourselves around you, you’ll be reading our minds!” “You know psychology? Do you, like, constantly analyse everything then?” Suddenly I felt very fed up of the psych stigma.

After returning to university to complete an MSc in evolution and behaviour and deciding that science communication was the field I wanted to get involved with, I was reminded even more of how stigmatised a psychology degree can be. Even now, upon learning that I want to be a science communicator, people say “oh so what is your first degree in?” When I tell them it is psychology, they often respond with a look of near-confusion, at which point I feel the need to add in “…And I have a master’s degree in evolution and behaviour” as if this somehow verifies that I Know Some Science.

I’m certainly not expecting psychology to be viewed on a par with physics or chemistry, and I know that the field has had its controversies and downright absurdities. But it feels to me like it’s always viewed as an easy degree, or something you take if you didn’t get the grades to do something else, or if you went to university for the craic. But I chose to study psychology, despite never wanting to be a psychologist, I loved my degree, I worked my ass of for it, yet… Now, if I could have my time again, I’d at the very least do a joint honours degree with biology, because I feel it would give me more credibility. One of the reasons I am so passionate about science communication is probably because I wish science had been communicated properly to me when I was making such a huge decision. It may not have changed my mind about studying psychology (it almost definitely would not have, I was a stubborn child) but at least it would have made me aware of what studying science entails and the opportunities a science degree can give you later in life.

I don’t know, maybe this is my problem. Are there any psychology graduates out there who feel almost apologetic about their degree, even if they love psychology? If so, please do let me know, maybe we can start a movement or support group or something.

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A yawn for empathy!

We do it more in the morning. We get the urge to do it when we see someone else doing it. And brand spanking new evidence has shown that chimpanzees do it too.

I am, of course, talking about the yawn. Yaaaawwwn. Not only is it one of those words that sound and look ridiculous if you say/write it enough, as I already have, it is also a word that tends to have an effect on people. If you talk to someone about yawning, the chances are that they will yawn at some point. It could just be that you are really boring. It could also be something else.

Do you feel like yawning yet? If not, click here and you soon will. Firstly, the question we should ask is: Why do we yawn? Lots of different suggestions have been proposed, but the answer is that we just do not know. The most popular idea is that yawning allows us to increase the oxygen flow to the brain, but there is actually very little evidence for this theory. Some people think that yawning to opens the tubes in our ears (which allows them to pop, like when we take off in a plane or go through a tunnel at high speed). It has also been suggested that it might help to cool the brain, or that it acts as a signal we have evolved to let others know that we are tired and it’s probably time for everyone to go to bed.

But what’s even more interesting about yawning, is that it is contagious. If you see someone else yawning, there is about a 50% chance that you will yawn yourself, and a high chance that you will at least feel like yawning. Unless you are under the age of 5 years, in which case you are not yet likely to fall for psychologically-induced yawning (Really. Get a toddler to watch this and they won’t even flinch. Those clever kids).

Although lots of animals yawn willy-nilly, it was only fairly recently found that chimpanzees also did this contagious yawning thing: Yawning after watching another chimp yawning. But a new paper published this month has found something even more cool: Chimpanzees are more likely to yawn if they have seen another, familiar chimp yawn. If a chimpanzee sees an individual they know yawning, they are much more likely to yawn themselves. If they see a and a strange chimpanzee they have never seen before yawning, they are much less likely to yawn themselves.

The researchers got two seperate groups of chimpanzees and showed each individual videos of other chimps yawning. These chimps were either members of their own group, or a stranger from the other group who they had never met before. They were much more likely to yawn after watching a member of their own group yawning, but they actually paid more attention to the videos of the chimps they did not know. So they watched videos of the unfamiliar chimps yawning more, but were less likely to show contagious yawning.

What does this mean? Well, contagious yawning has long been linked with empathy. It is thought that individuals who are more empathetic are more likely to yawn after watching someone else yawn. (Most evidence for this comes from the fact that people who score high on empathy tests such as self-recognition and theory of mind are much more likely to display contagious yawning).

 The fact that the chimps yawned more when members of their group did rather than when strangers did provides some convincing evidence for this empathy hypothesis. Chimpanzees are highly aggressive, territorial animals and are much nicer to members of their group than to outsiders, and so are more likely to display empathetic behaviours towards them.

It seems that the reason we are so prone to “catching” yawns is down to empathy, and not just that we all need a nap.

And if you got through this post without yawning, I don’t know whether to thank you for your politeness or be concerned at your lack of empathy…

Reference: Campbell M.W. & de Waal F.B.M. (2011) Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy. PLoS ONE, 6(4).

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